Reservations distract from real work: Another critique of reservations calls it a mostly symbolic politics of vote banks—the worst manifestation of identity politics —that has masked genuine debate over reform and development. Many other prior systemic barriers to equality of opportunity—as in persistent disparities in childhood nutrition, family income, access to quality primary and secondary schools, etc.
The reason is that Indian society lacks a very basic element, which is present in most societies.
However, the charter made Mali more similar to a constitutional monarchy than a democratic republic. English Puritans who migrated from established colonies in New England whose local governance was democratic and which contributed to the democratic development of the United States ;  although these local assemblies had some small amounts of devolved power, the ultimate authority was held by the Crown and the English Parliament.
Contrary to popular belief, reservations in India predate the Constitution by decades. In societies rife with entrenched inequality and discrimination, it is the penchant of the privileged to speak of open competition and difference-blind policies as virtues.
Most coveted positions went to members of this caste, causing resentment among Kurmis, Lodhs, and other lower OBCs.
First, it is significant that all of the countries ranked by Ringen according to their degree of democratic quality are stable democracies.