Kennedy, White House photo portrait, looking up Subsequent critics, historians, and politicians have suggested that other 'frontiers,' such as scientific innovation, could serve similar functions in American development. Often the rhetoric reaches an acrimonious crescendo. Historians have noted that John F.
They have, since their initial appearance, stirred usually placid historians into bitter controversy, radically altered the teaching of the nation's history, inspired a tidal wave of publication that still bulges from library shelves.
Turner, in the essay, continued in part as follows:. The mainstream of the profession has long since discarded Turner's assumption that the frontier is the key to American history as a whole; they point instead to the critical influence of such factors as slavery and the Civil War, immigration, and the development of industrial capitalism.
In contrast to his earlier blanket criticism of the thesis, which he labeled one of his ''parricidal forays'' and admitted had been destructive, 9 he now based his assessment of the thesis ''on the assumption that there is indeed something of substantial merit at the core of Turner's views.
Religious institutions from the eastern seaboard, in particular, battled for possession of the West. A second difference is that the essays in the Malone volume concentrate exclusively on the American West whereas those of Davidson and Lytle concern American history in general.
American intellect owes its form to the frontier as well. Limerick points out that Kennedy assumed that "the campaigns of the Old Frontier had been successful, and morally justified. If they had consulted his frontier essays as well as Rise of the West, they would have discovered, n an essay published ina discussion of Jackson hat began with wording that was virtually identical to he two paragraphs they had relied on from the book.
On a more analytic level, an increasing number of Western historians have found the very concept of a frontier dubious, because it applies to too many disparate places and times to be useful.